Manufacturers will often provide discrete refractive index data for a glass, i.e. index as a function of wavelength and temperature. This data may be used to define a new glass in OpticStudio. This article explains how to fit the observed temperature variation of discrete (e.g. experimental) refractive index data to the OpticStudio thermal model.
Authored By Sanjay Gangadhara
Manufacturers will often provide discrete refractive index data for a glass. This data may be used to define a new glass in OpticStudio.
If the refractive index of the glass exhibits no temperature variation, it can be used to define a new glass either by inputting the data into a glass catalog using the Glass Fitting tool, or by using the data to define a Table Glass. If the index data exhibits temperature variation, a multi-configuration system may be used.
However, if the wavelength variation of the data is to be described by one of the OpticStudio dispersion models, the data must also be fit to the thermal model employed by the program.
To demonstrate how measured index data may be fit to the OpticStudio thermal model, we’ll look at an example of data measured with CHARMS measurement system, which has been developed at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. The data that we will look at are for silicon, and can be obtained from an article entitled “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium”.1 Data at selected values of wavelength and temperature are provided in Table 2 of this article:
As described earlier in the article, the values presented in this table are generated by fitting data measured by the CHARMS system to a model referred to by the authors as the “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier model”. To demonstrate the use of OpticStudio's thermal fitting tools, we will fit the wavelength dependence of this fitted data (i.e.the data presented in the above table) to the Sellmeier 1 formula (as described in the The Libraries Tab...Optical Materials Group...Using Materials Catalogs section of the Help Files) and the temperature dependence to the standard OpticStudio thermal model.
It is important to note that each of the dispersion formulas in OpticStudio describes the variation of the relative index of refraction with wavelength. The relative index is simply the index of refraction of the glass normalized to the index of refraction of air. The OpticStudio dispersion formulas describe the relative index at a reference pressure (P0) of 1 atmosphere (= 101,325 Pa) and at the reference temperature of the glass (T0). This can be calculated from input data for the relative index that is provided at arbitrary pressure (P) and temperature (T) using the following formulas:
where λ is the wavelength. The index of air may be determined using:
Details regarding the calculation of nair are provided in the Help System: The Setup Tab...System Group (the Setup Tab)...System Explorer...Environment...Index of Refraction Computation. When using these two formulas to convert ninput(P,T,λ) values into nrel(P0,T0,λ) values, T is the measured temperature (in degrees C), P is the measured air pressure (in atmospheres), and λ is the input wavelength in microns at the reference temperature (T0) and the measured pressure (P). This is the case because OpticStudio assumes that all inputted index data are relative to air at the measured temperature and pressure, and that all inputted wavelength values are referenced to T=T0.
The dispersion formulas also require values for the wavelength that are relative to air at atmospheric pressure. Wavelength data inputted at an arbitrary pressure P can be converted to relative wavelengths using a formula which is similar to the one used to convert inputted index data:
As an example, let’s take a look at the silicon data provided in the above table. This table lists values for the absolute index of refraction at a series of wavelengths and temperatures. Since the index data are absolute, P=0. In this case nair(P,T,λ) = 1.0 for all wavelengths and temperatures, since the index of refraction of vacuum is always unity.
We now need to choose a reference temperature. In this case, it makes most sense to select 295 K = 21.85 degrees C as the reference temperature, since this temperature is closest to the standard value of T0 (20 degrees C) used for most other glasses in the OpticStudio material catalogs. The index of refraction of air at this temperature and at atmospheric pressure may be determined using the formula for nair provided above.
Over a wavelength range of 1.1-5.5 microns, as provided in the above table, the parameter nref varies from 1.00027265 to 1.00027388. At a reference temperature of 21.85 degrees C, the resultant variation in nair for this same wavelength range is 1.00026630 to 1.00026750. The values of nair(P0,T0,λ) can be calculated for each wavelength in the table, allowing the inputted index and wavelength data to be converted into relative index values and wavelengths. In this case the conversion is simplified by the fact that nair(P,T,λ) = 1.0 for all wavelengths and temperatures. However, OpticStudio also handles the general case – i.e. when P is not equal to zero – by calculating values for nair(P,T,λ) at all wavelengths and temperatures and including these values in the conversion, as described by the above equations. The relative index and wavelength data can then be accurately fit to the standard thermal and dispersion model of choice.
Once the inputted data have been converted to relative values at the reference temperature and pressure, this data is ready to be fit. The wavelength variation of the data at the reference temperature is first fit to one of the following OpticStudio dispersion models: Schott, Herzberger, Conrady, or Sellmeier 1. For the case of the silicon data provided in the previous section, we choose the Sellmeier 1 formula:
The standard algorithms used in OpticStudio for optimization are also used to determine the best-fit dispersion coefficients (K1, K2, …) for the reference temperature data. Data at other temperatures are then fit to the OpticStudio thermal model, which describes the variation of the absolute index of a glass with temperature:
In this formula n is the relative index at the reference temperature and pressure, and ΔT is the change in temperature relative to the reference temperature. Values for n are taken directly from the fits to the Sellmeier 1 formula (or in general, the dispersion model of choice) obtained for data at the reference temperature. The standard optimization algorithms used by OpticStudio are then used to determine the best-fit thermal coefficients (D0, D1, …) for the data.
Fits to the dispersion and thermal models are performed using the Glass Fitting Tool, located under Libraries...Materials Tools...Glass Fitting. Input data are provided to this tool via an ASCII text file, which must have the following format:
T0 l10 n10
T0 l20 n20
T0 lf0 nf0
T1 l11 n11
T1 l21 n21
T1 lf1 nf1
T2 l12 n12
Tf lff nff
where “f” stands for “final” (i.e. the last data set). For example, for the silicon data provided in the previous section, the table would look like:
21.85 1.1 3.54394
21.85 1.2 3.52253
21.85 1.3 3.50616
21.85 1.4 3.49335
21.85 1.5 3.48314
21.85 2.0 3.45352
21.85 2.5 3.44011
21.85 3.0 3.43293
21.85 3.5 3.42864
21.85 4.0 3.42589
21.85 4.5 3.42404
21.85 5.0 3.42274
21.85 5.5 3.42180
-243.15 1.1 3.51113
-243.15 1.2 3.49071
-243.15 1.3 3.47508
-243.15 1.4 3.46285
-243.15 1.5 3.45309
-243.15 2.0 3.42478
-243.15 2.5 3.41196
-243.15 3.0 3.40509
-243.15 3.5 3.40100
-243.15 4.0 3.39837
-243.15 4.5 3.39661
-243.15 5.0 3.39537
-243.15 5.5 3.39449
-233.15 1.1 3.51123
-73.15 4.5 3.40982
-73.15 5.0 3.40855
-73.15 5.5 3.40765
-23.15 1.1 3.53555
-23.15 1.2 3.51437
-23.15 1.3 3.49818
-23.15 1.4 3.48551
-23.15 1.5 3.47540
-23.15 2.0 3.44609
-23.15 2.5 3.43283
-23.15 3.0 3.42572
-23.15 3.5 3.42148
-23.15 4.0 3.41877
-23.15 4.5 3.41694
-23.15 5.0 3.41566
-23.15 5.5 3.41474
where all of the temperatures have been converted to degrees C, and we have explicitly indicated that the data are for P = 0. The file containing this raw data is named SI.TID (all input data files used for thermal fitting must have the .TID extension, as described in the Help System: The Libraries Tab...Optical Materials Group...Materials Tools...Glass Fitting), and can be found in the .ZIP file located at the end of this article.
The Glass Fitting Tool is then used to fit this data to the Sellmeier 1 dispersion formula and the OpticStudio thermal model. A new glass corresponding to the fitted data may also be added to one of the existing user-defined material catalogs (we do not allow new glasses to be added to any of the material catalogs provided with the OpticStudio installation; those catalogs get overwritten every time a new version is installed, and thus any user-defined glasses added to these catalogs would be deleted during each upgrade of OpticStudio!). For example, in this case a new glass named SI_THERMAL will be added to the SG_MISC catalog:
A summary of the fit results is provided in a text window. These results may be saved to a file. The text file which is generated when fitting the data provided in SI.TID to the Sellmeier 1 dispersion formula and the standard OpticStudio thermal model is also included in the .ZIP file attached to this article (Zemax_fit_Si_data.txt). The text output includes best fit values for the dispersion and thermal coefficients, the maximum and RMS errors associated with the fitting in each case, and a comparison between the original relative index data and the fitted value for each input point:
As indicated in the file, the original index and wavelength values are converted to relative index and wavelength values for a reference temperature of 21.85 degrees and a reference pressure of 1.0 atmosphere. This conversion uses the formulas provided in the previous section. For example, for a wavelength of 1.1 microns, the refractive index of air at 21.85 degrees C and 1 atmosphere is 1.00026750. The relative index values at this wavelength are then calculated by dividing the original index data by 1.00026750 (in general you would also need to multiply by the refractive index of air at the measured temperature and pressure, but since the pressure is zero the corresponding refractive index is always 1.0). The relative wavelength is calculated by dividing the original value by 1.00026750, i.e. λrel = 1.1/1.00026750 = 1.09970583. Note that this value matches the value shown in the text output to within numerical round-off, as expected.
The results indicate a very good fit of the reference temperature data to the Sellmeier 1 dispersion formula, with an RMS error of 2.5E-06 and a maximum error of 4.3E-06. The results also show that a good fit of the data to the OpticStudio thermal model has been obtained; the RMS error in this case is 2.9E-05, and the maximum error is 9.0E-05. The small values for the fit errors indicate that the OpticStudio thermal model plus the Sellmeier 1 dispersion model provide an accurate description of the input data in this case.
Once the fit is performed, the resulting dispersion and thermal coefficients can be used to define a new glass. For example, for the case described in the previous section the glass SI_THERMAL was added to the glass catalog SG_MISC.AGF. Using the Materials Catalog tool, we see that all of the coefficient and wavelength information has been transferred to this glass, as has data for the reference temperature and the valid wavelength range:
As indicated in the previous section, all data in the glass catalogs are referenced to atmospheric pressure (P0 = 1 atm). Thus, the minimum and maximum wavelengths represent values for the relative wavelengths rather than the inputted wavelengths.
This glass may now be used in any lens design of interest. We can verify that the coefficients specified for the glass are correct by setting up a simple system which uses this glass at a pressure, temperature and wavelength corresponding to one of the input data values. For example, image a simple system with three surfaces in which the glass is placed on surface 1:
For this system, the wavelength is set to 1.1 microns:
and the system temperature and pressure are set to -243.15 degrees C and 0 atmospheres, respectively:
The “Adjust Index Data To Environment” button must be checked if the system pressure and temperature are to be used in calculating the index of refraction. We can determine the index at this surface using the Prescription Data Report:
The reported value for the index is 3.51104019:
This value is within 9.0E-05 of the inputted index value (3.51113) for this temperature and wavelength. This temperature and wavelength represent the data point with the maximum fit error – as we can see in the fitting text output file Zemax_fit_Si_data.txt – so we would expect the difference between the OpticStudio result and the inputted data point to equal the maximum fit error, as it does. If we were to change the temperature and/or wavelength, we would find in all cases that the OpticStudio result would differ from the corresponding input value by an amount equal to the Delta value provided in the fitting text output file.
To test the calculations at a system pressure other than vacuum (e.g. at a pressure of 1 atmospheres), a bit more setup is required. When calculating the index values in vacuum, it does not matter what the surface temperature is relative to the system temperature – the data are always absolute. However, if the system pressure is non-zero, the surface and system temperatures need to be carefully specified, to ensure that the correct values for the relative index are calculated. This can be done using the Multi-Configuration Editor. For our simple system, we add 3 lines to the editor, as shown here:
The first line sets the temperature to -243.15 degrees C for all operands which follow this line in the editor. In this case only one GLSS operand follows this line, and it corresponds to the surface on which the glass has been placed. Therefore, this surface will have a temperature of -243.15 degrees C. All other surfaces in the system will be at the system temperature, which is set to be 21.85 degrees C (i.e. the reference temperature of the glass) in the third line of the editor (in general, the last TEMP operand in the Multi-Configuration Editor will always set the system temperature).
To calculate the index in this case, the system wavelength also needs to be converted from absolute to relative. Based on the formulas provided earlier in this article, we find that the relative wavelength at 1 atmosphere – the system pressure we will use for this test – corresponding to a vacuum wavelength of 1.1 microns is 1.09970583 microns. The value of the index at this wavelength and a temperature of -243.15 degrees C, for a system temperature of 21.85 degrees, may again be found in the Prescription Data Report:
1. Bradley J. Frey, Douglas B. Leviton, and Timothy J. Madison, Optomechanical Technologies for Astronomy, Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 6273, p. 62732J-1.